H₂ :

Biomarker of microbial metabolism for the diagnosis of  gastrointestinal diseases such as SIBO and carbohydrate maldigestion

Produced by H2-producing bacteria via microbial fermentation.

CH₄ :

Biomarker of microbial metabolism , especially for constipation and/or bloating

Produced by CH4-producing archaea or bacteria for H2 disposal.


Biomarker of microbial metabolism for diagnosis of SIBO - Diarrhea

Produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria via H2 consumption.

[1]Methodology and indications of H2-breath testing in gastrointestinal diseases: the Rome Consensus Conference.Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009. Aliment
Pharmacol Ther. 2009. 29 Suppl 1:1-49.
[2] Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus.Am J Gastroenterol. 2017 May;112(5):775-784.
[3] ACG Clinical Guideline: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2020, 115: 165-178.
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