NO :

Exhaled biomarker of Type-2 airway inflammation

Response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)

Tailoring ICS treatments

CO :

Exhaled biomarker of smoking cessation

Recommended by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)1 & NICE Guidelines2


Potential exhaled biomarker of non-Type-2 airway inflammation

Positively correlated with neutrophils3

Inversely correlated with eosinophils4

[1] Wilbur S, Williams M, Williams R,  et al. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Monoxide. Atlanta (GA): Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US); 2012 Jun.
[2] Quitting smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth. 2010.
[3] Saito J, Zhang Q, Hui C,  et al. Sputum hydrogen sulfide as a novel biomarker of obstructive neutrophilic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 , 131(1):232-4.e1-3.
[4] Zhang J, Wang X, Chen Y, et al. Exhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Predicts Airway Inflammation Phenotype in COPD. Respir Care. 2015 Feb;60(2):251-8.
[5] ATS/ERS Recommendations for Standardized Procedures for the Online and Offline Measurement of Exhaled Lower Respiratory Nitric Oxide and Nasal Nitric Oxide. 2005.
[6] Horváth I, Barnes PJ, Loukides S, et al. A European Respiratory Society technical standard: exhaled biomarkers in lung disease. Eur Respir J 2017; 49: 1600965.
[7] Rimmer J, Fokkens WJ, Hellings P, et al. European Position Paper on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology. Rhinology.2019, 28: 1-42.
[8]Global Initiative for Asthma. Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. 2020.
[9]Dweik R,  Boggs P, Erzurum S ,et al. An Official ATS Clinical Practice Guideline:Interpretation of Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels (FENO) for Clinical Applications. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184: 602–615.
[10] Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2020.
[11] An official JRS statement: The principles of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement and interpretation of the results in clinical practice.Respir Investig. 2021 Jan;59(1):34-52.
[12] KAAACI Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Cough in Adults and Children in Korea.Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018 Nov;10(6):591-613.
[13] Sarah Diver, Richard J Russell, Christopher E Brightling .Cough and Eosinophilia.J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. Jul-Aug 2019;7(6):1740-1747.
[14] Ian D Pavord , Kian Fan Chung. Management of chronic cough.Lancet. 2008 Apr 19;371(9621):1375-84.
[15] Jane S Lucas , Angelo Barbato,et al.European Respiratory Society guidelines for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia.Eur Respir J. 2017 Jan 4;49(1):1601090.
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